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Review of black carbon emission factors from different anthropogenic sources

Year of publication

2023

Authors

Rönkkö, Topi; Saarikoski, Sanna; Kuittinen, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Keskinen, Helmi; Järvinen, Anssi; Mylläri, Fanni; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Timonen, Hilkka

Abstract

<p>Particulate black carbon (BC) affects global warming by absorbing the solar radiation, by affecting cloud formation, and by decreasing ground albedo when deposited to snow or ice. BC has also a wide variety of adverse effects on human population health. In this article we reviewed the BC emission factors (EFs) of major anthropogenic sources, i.e. traffic (incl. marine and aviation), residential combustion, and energy production. We included BC EFs measured directly from individual sources and EFs derived from ambient measurements. Each source category was divided into sub-categories to find and demonstrate systematical trends, such as the potential influence of fuel, combustion technologies, and exhaust/flue gas cleaning systems on BC EFs. Our review highlights the importance of society level emission regulation in BC emission mitigation; a clear BC emission reduction was observed in ambient studies for road traffic as well as in direct emission measurements of diesel-powered individual vehicles. However, the BC emissions of gasoline vehicles were observed to be higher for vehicles with direct fuel injection techniques (gasoline direct injection) than for vehicles with port-fueled injection, indicating potentially negative trend in gasoline vehicle fleet BC EFs. In the case of shipping, a relatively clear correlation was seen between the engine size and BC EFs so that the fuel specific BC EFs of the largest engines were the lowest. Regarding the BC EFs from residential combustion, we observed large variation in EFs, indicating that fuel type and quality as well as combustion appliances significantly influence BC EFs. The largest data gaps were in EFs of large-scale energy production which can be seen crucial for estimating global radiative forcing potential of anthropogenic BC emissions. In addition, much more research is needed to improve global coverage of BC EFs. Furthermore, the use of existing data is complicated by different EF calculation methods, different units used in reporting and by variation of results due to different experimental setups and BC measurement methods. In general, the conducted review of BC EFs is seen to significantly improve the accuracy of future emission inventories and the evaluations of the climate, air quality, and health impacts of anthropogenic BC emissions.</p>
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Organizations and authors

Tampere University

Mylläri Fanni Orcid -palvelun logo

Kuittinen Niina Orcid -palvelun logo

Karjalainen Panu Orcid -palvelun logo

Rönkkö Topi Orcid -palvelun logo

Keskinen Helmi

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd

Kuittinen Niina Orcid -palvelun logo

Aakko-Saksa Päivi Orcid -palvelun logo

Järvinen Anssi

Finnish Meteorological Institute

Saarikoski Sanna

Timonen Hilkka Orcid -palvelun logo

Publication type

Publication format

Article

Parent publication type

Journal

Article type

Review article

Audience

Scientific

Peer-reviewed

Peer-Reviewed

MINEDU's publication type classification code

A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review

Publication channel information

Volume

18

Issue

3

Article number

033004

​Publication forum

55379

​Publication forum level

3

Open access

Open access in the publisher’s service

Yes

Open access of publication channel

Partially open publication channel

License of the publisher’s version

CC BY

Self-archived

Yes

License of the self-archived publication

CC BY

Other information

Fields of science

Physical sciences; Geosciences; Environmental engineering

Keywords

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Internationality of the publisher

International

Language

English

International co-publication

No

Co-publication with a company

Yes

DOI

10.1088/1748-9326/acbb1b

The publication is included in the Ministry of Education and Culture’s Publication data collection

Yes